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Governance in the public sector is defined as a set of processes that the board of directors carries out to manage and monitor the activities of the organization in achieving its objectives in the main, and governance is the means by which goals are set and achieved, to ensure appropriate behavior and prove credibility, this is not limited to companies. In the public sector, such a public school is equally important.


Governance principles


To ensure success and ethical behavior, the following principles are used in public sector management:


Direction setting: directs policies and actions of the organization through broad national goals, performance objectives, or with strategic planning.


Inculcation of ethics: In it, policies and procedures will be developed that encourage employee behavior to be consistent with the public sector institution's code of ethics.


Oversight of results: Effective governance requires ensuring that policies are implemented as intended and that strategies are achieved. Is your organization complying with laws and regulations? Good referee will know the answer.


Accountability reporting: public sector organizations must follow financial standards and performance standards, an audit can determine whether the organization prepares accurate financial reports, if the organization does not accurately report its financial statements, a penalty will be applied.


Correction cycle: Governance systems are used to identify problems and make necessary corrections when needed, good governance must be able to make these corrections quickly and effectively.


Audit committees in the public sector


The Government Accountability Office always cares about public sector entities to have an audit committee, and the presence of an audit committee helps to ensure that internal controls are in place and its usual work. The audit committee focuses on the scope of the audit, recommends the appointment of an external auditor, supervises the financial statements, and ensures that the audit is cost-effective. The audit committee needs three qualities: independence, communication and accountability.


Corporate governance in public entities is a concept that is gaining more and more specialized areas and includes corporate governance in public bodies such as leadership and leadership of a set of clear rules and principles.


It focuses on a set of factors such as (integrity, honesty, sincerity, transparency and responsibility), clear risk management and control mechanisms, and required elements.


In order to achieve the purpose of the public authorities, which is to meet the public needs, it can also contribute to the effective use of public funds, reduce expenditures or the budget deficit, and eliminate them.


We must focus on corruption and increasing performance in public bodies? The concept of corporate governance in public entities was based on the research methodology on consulting the specialized literature, respectively, using the historical method to indicate milestones in the development of the concept of corporate governance and the comparative method for analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of corporate governance in the private sector and how this model can be implemented in the public sector.


If the term “governance” refers to “management,” then “corporate governance” refers to something. We can affirm that the concept - corporate governance - is the integrated management of the entire organization, by accepting everyone


Governance is a form of control over public entities, and empirical analysis of corporate governance models for public entities in countries with which


Economists ’opinion on governance:


In what economists call a "mixed economy" and there is a group of organizations, some commercial organizations exist for profit making, others are charitable organizations and another type is referred to as the public sector, so as not to be confused with "public companies" (which describe the general availability of their shares. These are organizations that are linked in one way or another to or provide public goods and services. This means that they help, in one way or another, to provide goods and services that cannot be provided by companies "for profit."


In most cases, public sector organizations are operated, at least in part, by the state not to be confused with the government. It is an autonomous and autonomous region, often comprising residents who have a common recent or ancient history of the state. Four basic 'organs' no Without it, it can operate to its full capacity through the executive (or government), legislative branch, judiciary, and trust (or administration). Due to the differences in national constitutions, it is not possible to give general examples of how to "work".


Example of governance in the public and private sector:


In the United Kingdom, for example, the head of state is the ruling monarch and the head of government is a different person (the prime minister), the head of government leads the executive, and the head of state is largely a ceremonial post, but in other countries, he also has a role in government. The legislative authority establishes and passes the legislative law that the judiciary interprets (the court system) and enforces it along with other unlawful laws called general laws in democracy, the legislative authority is largely elected and the judiciary is independent of the government so that the judiciary can, if necessary, file a lawsuit Legal against the government or its members.


The State Secretariat or its administration is by far the largest of the four "organs" and is responsible for implementing government policy and managing a large number of state functions again. The roles played by the secretariat depend on the country's constitution, but usually include education, health, provision of local authority, central government, defense and affairs. Foreign affairs, state pensions, tax collection, and internal issues such as immigration, police and prisons.


The public sector in most developed countries and in many developing countries is very large in the more developed countries. The state spends more than 40% of the country's GDP and this figure is more than 50% in some cases, in the United Kingdom for example, the public sector represents about a quarter All jobs and so the public sector is very large and it represents many organizations